Diabetes is a chronic disease which occurs either when the pancreas fails to develop sufficient insulin or when the human body is unable to effectively use the insulin. Symptoms associated with diabetes are frequent urination, blurred vision, increased thirst, rapid weight loss, numbness or tingling sensation in hands or feet and increased hunger. Factors which increase the risk of diabetes are ethnicity, family history, unhealthy diet, physical inactivity and smoking. Diabetes can damage the heart, eyes, blood vessels, kidneys, and nerves which may lead to disability and premature death. There are three types of diabetes, namely, type 1, type 2 and gestational diabetes. Type 1 diabetes can cause due to complex interaction between genes and environmental factors. The most common risk factors for type 2 diabetes are overweight and obesity. However, gestational diabetes develops only during pregnancy.
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Human insulin is created in laboratory by growing insulin proteins within E-coli bacteria. Human insulin regulates the blood glucose levels. The long acting insulin stays in the body for up to 24 hours, whereas the intermediate acting insulin stays in the body for 16 to 24 hours. Another form of insulin is short acting insulin which stays in the body for 6 to 8 hours. The next form of insulin is rapid acting insulin which stays in the body for 3 to 5 hours. Further, premixed analog insulin is also a form of insulin which is used in diabetes. It is made by combining rapid acting and long acting insulin. Absorption of the insulin can be delayed due to smoking and scarring. Human insulin is absorbed more rapidly as compared to insulin and it causes lesser autoimmune diseases.
The major factor driving the human insulin market is the increasing prevalence of diabetes. According to International Diabetes Federation, in 2015, diabetes affected 415 million people worldwide and this number is expected to reach up to 642 million by 2040. Moreover, increase in the prevalence of obesity will also fuel the growth of this market. For instance, as per WHO, in 2014, more than 1.9 billion adults, 18 years and older, were overweight, and out of these, over 600 million were obese. Moreover, it states that, in 2014, 41 million children whose age was under 5 were obese or overweight. However, strict regulatory requirements for the approval of human insulin product will hamper the growth of human insulin market.
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The key strategy adopted by the major players in the market is product launch to gain more share. For instance, in November 2016, Novo Nordisk A/S received FDA approval for Xultophy which is a combination of Tresiba and Victoza. By the launch of Xultophy, Novo Nordisk A/S will gain more market share.
The major players in the market are Novo Nordisk A/S, Biocon, Sanofi, SemBioSys, Julphar, Wockhardt Limited, and Eli Lilly and Company.
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